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    Multiple Jurisdictions 1024 683 Dorter

    Multiple Jurisdictions

    Litigation of issues across multiple jurisdictions involving the same subject matter and parties is becoming increasingly common, particularly in family law. It will often involve a careful analysis of which jurisdiction or Court is preferred and consideration of whether the issues or proceedings can be transferred or consolidated.

    In a family law context it is becoming more common to see third parties, such as Mum or Dad or grandparents, seek repayment of monies they may have advanced to one or both parties or an argument that real estate is held “on trust” for a third party following separation. In these situations a third party may assert certain legal rights to pursue repayment of monies or declarations that the third party is the beneficial owner (real owner) of real estate. What follows is that multiple jurisdictions (or Courts) may have the jurisdiction to decide the issue e.g. Federal Circuit and Family Court of Australia and Supreme Court of New South Wales. Our previous article on “Accrued Jurisdiction” provides an overview on such jurisdiction existing between different Courts and can be found here – What is Jurisdiction and Accrued Jurisdiction?.

    In these circumstances it is necessary to seek specialist advice about:

      1. Which jurisdiction (or Court) may be preferred to determine the issue;

      2. Whether the issue can be cross-vested, or transferred, between jurisdictions (or Courts);

      3. When and how to apply for a transfer of proceedings;

      4. How to deal with different Judicial Officers in different Courts; and

      5. What to do if the transfer does not succeed.

    Dorter Family Lawyers and Mediators specialises in family law disputes that involve multiple areas of jurisdiction and/or multiple Courts. If you require any assistance with the above we can assist.

    This post is an overview only and should not be considered as legal advice.  If there are any matters that you would like us to advise you on, then please contact us on (02) 9929 8840.

    Andrew Johnson

    Rebekah Dorter

    Declaration of Nullity and Divorce 800 533 Dorter

    Declaration of Nullity and Divorce

    “Is a Declaration of Nullity the Same as a Divorce?”

    After married couples have been separated for a period of twelve (12) months they may wish to apply to the Family Court or the Federal Circuit Court for Divorce. Some clients, however, ask if they can obtain a Nullity rather than a Divorce order.

    What is a Nullity?

    A Declaration of Nullity is a finding by the Family Court of Australia that, although a marriage ceremony may have taken place, the marriage between the parties is void and not legal. As a result, the outcome is that the parties to the void marriage do not become divorced, but rather it is as though they were never married in the first place. This is also known as a marriage annulment.

    How to Declare Nullity

    The Court is able to make such a declaration in accordance with the Family Law Act however, there are very specific grounds upon which a Declaration of Nullity may be sought. A Declaration of Nullity may be made on the following grounds:

    1. At the time of the parties’ marriage, one of the parties remained married to someone else (a previous relationship where no divorce occurred);
    2. The parties are in a prohibited relationship;
    3. The parties did not comply with the laws of the marriage in the country they were married;
    4. Either party was not of a legal age to marry and did not hold the relevant approvals; or
    5. Either of the parties did not give their real consent to the marriage because:-
      • consent was obtained by duress or fraud;
      • one party was mistaken as to the identity of who they were marrying or the nature of the ceremony; or
      • one party was mentally incapable of understanding the nature and the effect of the marriage ceremony.

    When do you want to seek a Declaration of ‘Nullity’ and not a ‘Divorce’?

    The purpose of a Declaration of Nullity is to find a marriage “void”, meaning “of no effect”. The primary reason a Declaration of Nullity is sought is when one of the parties is already married. This is often the case when:

    1. A party is unaware that their previous marriage was formally registered; or
    2. A party is unaware that no Divorce Order has been granted in relation to their earlier marriage.

    A recent Family Court Decision dealt with this issue whereby an Application for Nullity was sought. In this case, the Wife had not obtained a Divorce Order from her previous Husband. The Wife had been separated from her former Husband for approximately 12 years prior to the second marriage, however, she was not aware that a Divorce Order had not been granted from her first marriage.

    In this matter, there were three (3) steps that needed to be completed: –

    1. Apply to the Family Court for a Declaration of Nullity;
    2. Obtain a divorce from her first Husband; and
    3. Legally re-marry.

    When is a Marriage Recognised?

    The ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Marriage Act 1961, defines marriage as “The union of 2 people to the exclusion of all others, voluntarily entered into for life.”

    The criteria to be legally married in Australia, requires that you must: –

    1. Not be married to another person;
    2. Not be marrying a parent, grandparent, child, grandchild, brother, or sister;
    3. Be at least 18 years old, unless a court has approved a marriage where one party is aged between 16 and 18 years old;
    4. Understand what marriage means and freely consent to becoming husband and wife;
    5. Use specific words during the ceremony; and
    6. Give written notice of the intention to marry to their authorised celebrant, within the required time frame.

    If you would like any assistance with the above, Dorter Family Lawyers and Mediators are expert family lawyers who specialise in all areas of family law and can assist. Please contact us on (02) 99298840.

    Luke Meehan

    Rebekah Dorter

    This post is an overview only and should not be considered as legal advice.  If there are any matters that you would like us to advise you on, then please contact us.

    Binding Financial Agreements and How to Set them Aside 1024 684 Dorter

    Binding Financial Agreements and How to Set them Aside

    Have you entered into a Binding Financial Agreement (BFA) that is outdated or is unfair?

    In certain circumstances, the laws in Australia may enable a party to receive a just and equitable property settlement, if permitted by the Court.

    Recent Decision

    In October 2019, in the decision of Westacott & Dunwoody (No. 2) [2019] FAMCA 719, Dorter Family Lawyers and Mediators successfully set aside a BFA on the grounds that it would have been unjust and inequitable to not uphold the Termination Agreement the parties had entered into on separation. Dorter Family Lawyers represented the Husband who is now able to seek a property division that will be just and equitable under the Family Law.

    The Husband sought to set aside a BFA entered into by both the Husband and the Wife in 2005. In 2018, the parties entered into a Termination Agreement which enabled the parties to enter into Consent Orders for a final property settlement with terms different to their original BFA.

    The Wife later sought for the Termination Agreement to be set aside, and to uphold the BFA on the grounds that the Husband did not obtain the required independent legal advice when entering into the Termination Agreement.

    The Court found that since the making of the BFA, the Wife had made various payments to the Husband which were consistent with the Termination Agreement and inconsistent with the BFA. Accordingly, the Court found that it would be unjust and inequitable for the Termination Agreement to not be upheld and therefore, declared the Termination Agreement binding, which effectively terminated the BFA.

    What is a BFA?

    A BFA, or commonly known as a ‘Prenup,’ is an agreement entered into by two parties to a relationship which sets out how, in the event of a relationship breakdown, the parties’ financial affairs and property will be dealt with. You can enter into a BFA prior to being married or engaged, during a de facto relationship or marriage, or after a divorce.

    Provided that all the legal requirements are satisfied when entering into the BFA, you and your partner will be bound by the terms of the agreement. As a result, you do not need to approach the Court for a final determination of your property settlement in the event your relationship breaks down.

    Is your BFA Binding?

    Before you consider setting aside your BFA, the Court will consider whether your BFA is binding.

    Under the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) (“the Act”), a financial agreement is only binding if you and your partner each satisfy the following:

    1. The agreement is signed by each party;
    2. Before signing the agreement, independent legal advice is obtained by each party in relation to the effect of the agreement and the advantages and disadvantages of the agreement;
    3. Each party obtains a statement signed by their legal practitioner stating that this advice was provided; and
    4. Neither party has terminated the agreement and the agreement has not been set aside by the Court.

    If one or more of the above has not been satisfied, you may not be bound by your BFA. You may then be entitled to seek a property settlement that would be considered just and equitable under the Family Law.

    Terminating the BFA

    If both you and your partner no longer wish to be bound by your BFA, you may terminate the agreement by entering into a further BFA terminating the first agreement, or by entering into a ‘Termination Agreement’. These are the only two options available to terminate the agreement in accordance with the Act and you should obtain legal advice about how to do this.

    Before signing a Termination Agreement, each party must obtain independent legal advice to understand their rights and to understand the advantages and disadvantages of making the Termination Agreement.

    Setting aside the BFA

    If the parties have not terminated their BFA and a party wishes to set aside the BFA, the Court must be satisfied of one of the following grounds:

    1. The agreement was obtained by fraud;
    2. The purpose of the agreement was to defraud or defeat a creditor or the other party;
    3. The agreement was made with reckless disregard to creditors or the other party;
    4. The purpose of the agreement was to defeat an interest of the other party;
    5. The agreement is void, voidable or unenforceable;
    6. Circumstances have arisen to make the agreement impracticable to be carried out;
    7. Since the making of the agreement, there has been material changes which involve the care, welfare and development of a child and the party who is responsible for the child will suffer hardship if the BFA is not set aside; or
    8. A party engaged in unconscionable conduct when making the agreement.

    Application of Rules of Contract

    A BFA, being a contract, is subject to the laws of contract and legal advice should be obtained to ensure your BFA also complies with the laws of contracts.

    Simplifying the laws of contract, the BFA may be voidable or unenforceable if:

    1. One party repudiates the contract by showing that they no longer wish to be bound by the contract and the other party chooses to rescind the contract; or
    2. One party intentionally waives their right to enforce the contract or abandons the contract by acting in a way that is totally inconsistent with the contract.


    1. Do I have to go to Court to set the BFA aside?

    Unfortunately, to set a BFA aside, you will need an order of the Court if the other party does not agree to mediate and reach agreement. If both parties agree to not be bound by a BFA, a Termination Agreement should be completed in accordance with the Family Law Act.

    2. What if the BFA does not deal with all of the property in the event of separation or divorce?

    Part or all of the BFA may become uncertain and therefore unenforceable. This will depend on the terms of the clause considered in the context of the BFA entirely.

    3. Can the BFA include a parenting agreement?

    These clauses will not be binding and cannot be enforced. The best way to deal with parenting is through Consent Parenting Orders.

    4. Can the BFA include a parenting agreement? 

    The Court will still have jurisdiction to deal with spouse maintenance in accordance with the Family Law.

    Each party’s circumstances are unique and legal advice should be obtained from a family lawyer who specialises in such agreements if you seek to rely upon or set aside a BFA.

    If you require assistance, please contact Dorter Family Lawyers and Mediators on (02) 9929 8840 or via email on hello@inst1045122-8984.ozhosting.com.